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Six Types of Training and Development Techniques
1.On-the-job Training and Lectures
The 2 most regularly used kinds of training are on-the-job training and lectures, although little research exists as to the effectiveness of either. It's often impossible to teach someone everything she must know at a location away from the workplace. Thus on-the-job training typically supplements other kinds of training, e.g., classroom or off-site training; however on-the-job training is regularly the only type of training. It is normally informal, which means, unfortunately, that the trainer does not concentrate on the training as a lot as she should, and the trainer may not have a well-articulated image of what the novice must learn.
On-the-job training is just not successful when used to keep away from growing a training program, although it could be an effective a part of a well-coordinated training program.
Lectures are used because of their low price and their capacity to achieve many people. Lectures, which use one-way communication versus interactive learning techniques, are much criticized as a training device.
2. Programmed Instruction (PI)
These devices systematically current data to the learner and elicit a response; they use reinforcement principles to promote appropriate responses. When PI was initially developed in the Nineteen Fifties, it was considered useful only for fundamental subjects. Right this moment the strategy is used for skills as numerous as air visitors control, blueprint reading, and the evaluation of tax returns.
3. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
With CAI, students can study at their own pace, as with PI. Because the student interacts with the computer, it is believed by many to be a more dynamic learning device. Educational alternate options could be quickly selected to suit the student's capabilities, and efficiency will be monitored continuously. As instruction proceeds, data are gathered for monitoring and improving performance.
4. Audiovisual Techniques
Both television and film lengthen the range of skills that may be taught and the way data could also be presented. Many systems have digital blackboards and slide projection equipment. Using methods that mix audiovisual systems similar to closed circuit television and telephones has spawned a new term for this type of training, teletraining. The feature on " Sesame Street " illustrates the design and evaluation of one among television's favorite children's program as a training device.
Training simulations replicate the essential traits of the real world that are essential to produce both learning and the switch of new knowledge and skills to application settings. Each machine and different types of simulators exist. Machine simulators often have substantial degrees of. physical fidelity; that is, they represent the real world's operational equipment. The main function of simulation, however, is to produce psychological fidelity, that's, to reproduce in the training those processes that might be required on the job. We simulate for a number of reasons, including to regulate the training surroundings, for safety, to introduce feedback and different learning rules, and to reduce cost.
6. Enterprise games
They are the direct progeny of war games that have been used to train officers in fight techniques for hundreds of years. Nearly all early enterprise games had been designed to teach fundamental business skills, but more current games also include interpersonal skills. Monopoly is perhaps considered the quintessential enterprise game for younger capitalists. It is probably the primary place children learned the words mortgage, taxes, and go to jail.
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